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Voice of Talysh

Голос Талыша


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Tolışi xəbon

Xıdo rəhmətkə Əli Rzayevi... 
Fərzəndon 
Bastari musibət (aktual hukayət) 
Bə çəmə alimə zoon afərin bıbu 
Aydın müəllimi de şair Xilqəti musahibə 
Çı mardə odəmi nomi bə jurnali redaksiyə heyət çokonə dənəmon? 
Tolışi mətbuat tarixədə tojə cən - "Aləm" jurnal çapo beşə 
Xatirə ruşnədə dili söhbət (6) 
Xatirə ruşnədə dili söhbət (5) 
Xatirə ruşnədə dili söhbət (4) 
Xatirə ruşnədə dili söhbət (3) 
"KUL" sıxani mənon 
Xatirə ruşnədə dıli sohbət (2) 
Xatirə ruşnədə dıli sohbət 
“Honi çəşmə"ro vəsə 
ÇE? ÇI? 
Əv kiye? 
Şahmirzə Tolışəxun - 60 
Tolışi talantə şair Şamirzə TOLIŞƏXUN (10.07.1955 - 18.11.2014) 
Tolışi talantə şair Şamirzə TOLIŞƏXUN (10.07.1955 - 18.11.2014) 
Baləddin VEŞO şeronədə pencli janr 
De şair Baləddin VEŞO müsahibə 

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Voice of Talysh

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Journey on the tracks of the etno name TALYSH
The formation of Talysh ethnos penetrated different stages, and it has long history. As one of the earliest foci of human civilization the territory of Talysh people is rich of the archaeological monuments of ancient period when people lived in the caves. Under the effects of different factors the people concentrated in the mountains, gradually began to realize their generality/community, which led to the formation of the ethnic name Talysh/Tolish (Tolish is the self call of Talyshians). Furthermore, in the territories inhabited by Talysh people there are many place names, river names and mountain names [Talarud, TAROM (name of the mountain)], which are close in the sounding to the ethno name Talysh: the large part of the mountains of Iranian plateau, including the Little Asia mountains in this or other way is connected with the ethno name Talysh.

There is much information proving the antiquity of the ethno name Talysh. Iranian historian Sadik Isfagani considered that "Talysh was the name of the son of Yafeta, son of Noy, from it is given the name to the tribe in Gilan, and from the name of the tribe occurred the name of the land; Talyshistan (Land of Talyshians). Arabs write this name as Talysh. This information of Isfagani corresponds to the ideas of the biblical authors, who counted the origin of Medes from Maday - the third son of Yafesa. So basing on the information of the ancient authors it is clearly possible to conclude that ethno name of Midyans (Medes) and Talyshians raise to the united source - to Yafesu, the son of the forefather of contemporary humanity Noy.
Name of Talysh is extended not only to the mountains, but also to the low parts i.e., to entire country of Talysh People. The Russian author of XIX century Satunin correctly notes: "Usually the name of Talysh are extended to all parts of this country, i.e., to the mountains and to the lowlands". The mountains of Iranian plateau were also called Median (Medes').
But Talysh people, first of all, are connected with the mountains, because its formation occurred in the enormous mountainous territories of the mountain range, boundary of which from the north was the river Tanias (Don), on the west the mountain Ararat, on the south Hindu Kush (Second Caucasus), on south east the river Tolos or Talas. During different periods of the history Talysh - Medes people were known under different names;
They were called Caspian (due to horse breeding and riding on the horses),
They were called Scythians - prometaids (due to fire-worshiping),
They were called as Mars - vishapatsunks (worshippers of the cult of fire/light - dragon).
It is known that Medes was also called as mags on the name of one of the names six Median tribes. From V century all the Zoroastrians were called as mags, and in the period of Arabs' supremacy - they were called as madzhus. Apparently, this to the specific time displaced very concept of Talysh // Tolish topics from the use.
Nevertheless history preserved from the immemorial times ethnos with its ancient original name Talysh // Tolish. About this correctly wrote A. A. Bakykhanov:"...not only centuries, but even millenniums could not destroy the initial names of many local tribes ", which in its turn tells about stability and vitality of the Talysh ethnos in front of the whirlpools of history.
In spite of the propagation since ancient times ethnic names, which resembled Talysh, this ethnic name and this ethnos of Talysh is connected in essence with the territory of the southwest of Caspian Sea. Here for the first time Talysh people realized their ethnic essence and from here they extended their knowledge about the world into the remaining part of terrestrial globe. Talysh people were the first of the people, which became acquainted with the secrets of working with metals - bronze (byrynzh), coppers (cape) and further - iron (oson) and possibly in this connection they got to be known as wise men - magicians. In the Talysh language the blacksmith is called osonaga, the word, which can be understood as "Doing easier" (oson-yakya). Actually, only person, who works with the metal can observe the process of converting of things (sense of heat, cold, wind, air) forming and converting the things of one state into another. In ancient Greece the god of Zeus they likened to demiurge - creator, and in the Greece was the mythological mean of blacksmith - Hephaestus (Hefest), who on the order of Zeus nailed Prometheus to the Caucasian ridge/spine in Skifia, where the blacksmithing emerged as well got formed the Talysh People. The only sin of the Prometheus was that he stole the fire and gave it to the humanity.
It is interesting that people, on the mythology of Greeks, did occur as a result of transformation of the stone into the people, and therefore did produce laoi // human from the word of laas - stone. And this question explains why in Greece the skill of sculpture was developed. It is understandable that word - laoi ( Stone like humans) and in terms of its value is identical with the Sumerian word lolu - "human" on the basis of which it is possible to conclude that part of the words "lo" in the word of Talysh // Tolish indicates simply "The Human".
In the Greek mythology are known such characters, as the Medea - the mother of Medes, the founder of Medeia, human - horse - centaur, and finally Bronze person - Talos, the guardian of Crete island, in connection with which is examined the first acquaintance of Greeks with the bronze statues. In the territory of Talysh people were bronze and rock statues of rams. Apparently, Greeks became acquainted with the bronze statues from Talyshians and therefore they called man with the bronze armors Talos; they, possibly, learned the stone shaping also from Talyshians, connecting the version of the creation of contemporary humanity with the name of the mythical hero of fire-worshippers - Talyshians (Scythians) - Prometheus. Greeks manufactured the statues of their gods from the tree/wood and on this called them by the word "eov" Serious wood). Idols in the Talysh language are called "byrshchoz", word which does consist of two parts ["byr"-"byrynzh" (bronze)] and hence "biriye" to cut and "shchoz" "ready man" (but the particle of "shchoz" it is connected with the word of "shchozi"(shchoziya odyam), that indicates the "untooled person", and "byrshchoz" - there is exactly "tooled person"; apparently, the root of the word of "shchoz" did originate from word "zuye" - to "clean" (or -zoa- the boy) - to hack, to dress ("zi"- it can also indicate the Russian jizn "The life" and "Live", from the verb Jie, Persian verca is "Zistian").
The archaeological monuments, discovered in the territory of the Caspian Sea Region - on the spots inhabited by Talyshians (both in Iran and in northern Talyshia) show that among the ancient Talyshians the skill of the preparation of different idols, statuettes was very developed. So that, person, dressed in the copper armor on Crete island "Talos" was named so precisely in connection with the ethnic name Talyshians (Tolish-Talos), and in Greek concept of bronze and bronze person itself indicated the Talyshians, this is why they also were called Bronze Medes.
The Greeks resembled Medes-Talyshians as horse people, riders, and called them as centaurs - tribe of half people and half horses. It should be noted that the discovery of metals in the territories of the Talysh people, converted the territory into the real center of civilization, whence it is natural, people under different names extended their knowledge and goods into the different parts of terrestrial globe. This is why many known tribe names in the ancient world, in some way are connected with the territory of the Caspian region, where many tribes stroved from the distant countries for getting its riches/resources, for the abduction of its masters, cattle, the deportation of horses. On this basis appeared constant wars with Turanians, Arabs and Assyrians - zoxxakids. Word of "turan" in the contemporary Talysh language indicates "followers of the wrong false way". It is formed from the words of "du" (lie), and "ro" (the road). Turanians were initially Aryans. They did not observe the laws of the community and the principles of endogamy, and therefore they were banished from the association.
The events, proceeding in the territory of Talysh people, did enter into the mythology of many nations of ancient world and particularly interesting is that these occupied important place in the holy writings; Bible and the Koran, without mentioning the holy book of all Irani nations - Avesta whence this theme was borrowed. Russian scientist, who investigated the ancient history of the peoples of the Caspian region, having available the mentioned in the bible information about the prince Roche, Tubal and Meshekhe thus who lived on the southern shore of Caspian Sea. He wrote: "Tubal of the Bible who is always mentioned next to Meshekhom, had to govern/control the mountainous province of Tabar, located next to the steppe province Dekhistanom. In IV chapter of the "Being" the name of Tubal is named for "keeper of all instruments made from copper and iron". This gave occasion to the number of researchers to identify with Tubalom Tibarens and khalibs thus populated the southeastern coast of Black sea and noted for the smelting of iron ore. The same sign/criterion "ancient iron melting" is equal for the Tabaristanians of the Caspian Region who had their iron melting center at their city of Amul during the times of the Gmeline. The same Tabar of Tubal is the same Tavr as to the philology, and the Tavr is the name of the anicient inhabitants of the island Krim, Ukraine.
It should be noted that among the population of Talyshia until recent times the blacksmithing craft had wide acceptance, and blacksmiths had special honor. In the confirmation of the assertions of the author outlined above, it is possible to give still the fact that even in the antiquity from the territories mentioned till to the river Don existed the same ethno names close to Talysh or Tolish. As to Strabon; Spine of Tavr goes away from Caspian Sea to the east, and the northern part of the Tavr were occupied by gels, kadusis and medes. On the southwestern shore of the Caspian Region lived telyumays, and next vein tribe was Talai. Telyumays lived also on the north of Albania (Ancient Caucasian State). Talais lived also on the eastern shores the mouths of the Caspian Region. In the opinion of another ancient author, Talais also lived in the West of mouth. They are Talais are noted also on the north and in the south of Albania, and also in Atropatene. Polypus, speaking about the northern limits of Media places there Elamits by whose name it is possible to understand Telyumays. Polypus keeping in mind northern Elamits did name them as Delemits (Delemitai).
Word "Elam" was connected with the ethnic names of the "Gelam" and "Gels", who in some sources were identified with kadusis, who lived where now live Talyshians. Kadusi and Matiyeny (some researchers identify them with Medes), according to Polypus, were the neighbors of northern Elamits and Medes. Delemits whereas possible those dilmuns//telmuns (In Sumerian - talai//dalai), telmuns of ancient sources, Delemits of the locality of deylamia - all this, in our opinion the diverse variants of ethno name of Talysh//Tolish. The ethno name of Talysh//Tolish on the north of the territory indicated at present preserved. The Georgians call their northern neighbors - Ossetins (An other Irani Languaged/Aryan nation) tuals and simultaneously dvals (dyval/dival). And these concepts of dval (dival, dval) are considered as almost identical. The ethno name of dyval is connected with ethno names mentioned in the works of Pliniya Secund (I century) and geographer Ptolomeus under the names of Tal, Tshalos/valli, uallo/ooalloy, Dvals and Tals. They occupied one and the same territory and therefore these ethno names seem to us as one ethnic name. Concept of Tual is consonant with biblical tubalam that is blacksmiths. Same ethnic name; Osetin (themselves they call their country Iron) does resemble the Talysh name of blacksmith "osonaga" (from the word of "oson" the iron).The people of Ual (valli), which as to Ptolomeus dwelt in the territory between the mountains of Keravniys (contemporary Talysh Mountains) and the river Ra (Now days Volga) is identified with Dvals.
In the territory of Georgia historically existed region of Dvaletiya and in this territory on the present time is extended one of the Iranian languages "Ossetic" language, and origin of Dvals connected with this population and with the Scythian tribes the Alans. It is known that Osetiya is simultaneously called as Alania. The name of the Alan tribe resembles the name of the tribes of the Caucasian Albania, who since ancient times lived in the Median Mountains on the shore of the Caspian Sea, on the Caspian slope of the large Caucasus. The Median tribes (Medes) also lived in the territory of Caucasian Albania. Albans, Alans were of the Median origin. Alov tribes of (on Talysh language alozh from People from Ala) prior to the beginning of XX century they dwelt among Talyshians in Mougan and spoke in the Talysh language. Through The Daryal gorge Alans accomplished their marches, passing Georgia into Transcaucasia's countries, and the tribes of massageto-alans circle they penetrated through the Derband passage to the territory of Caspian strip. Thus in the first centuries of the AC the interconnection of Alans, who lived on the north, with the Medes-Talyshians were not interrupted. As writes the father of Azerbaijanian history Iqrar Aliyev: "The Iranian language of Atropatena was close to the Iranian language of Iveria (ancient Georgia); in ancient Georgia guided the Iranian dynasties of Farnavazes.
In Dvaletia there was even from the times of Strabon a second ethnic name of Asei (Asia), which in its turn shows the antiquity of the ethnic names of dval, dival, dyval, valli, uallo, as/az and their connection with the ethno name Talysh. The ethno name of Dival reminds the concept of Divs (Dtsvel, teufel) from the Talysh people's stories co-called Divs, the culture bearers who (on "Shakhname") trained the Iranian king Takhmuras to the written language and transmitted to him six (or seven) types of written language.
In the ancient India the language of Divs (As to "Sankskritu"-Devanagarii) was considered as the language of the Gods - father of all languages. Daiva was the name of the patrol God of the Aryan tribes, that resembles the Greek gods The Zeus and specially the Dionis who was known as the God of Asian origin. We can suggest that the Divals were the same Tubals, Talyshes. The Divals supporters of the God Deus (As to the myths of Irani nations their habitation territories are known as the Mazandaran or Tabaristan - Tapurstan. The ward Tabar is of Talyshian Tavia - The hammer) lived at the same place where the blacksmith Talyshians did. In the national, historic tales of the people of Caucasus there are a lot of heroes called as Cyclops (One eyed big creatures) and the places, castles conncted with the Divs (Divgala - The castle of the Divs), and in some tales these are directly linked with the blacksmithing craft and with Medes who are directly linked with the bronze that also has many common issues with the myth of Prometheus.
As the specialists: "Dev is surely/clearly an Iranian element in the national mythology of Caucasian nations". It is known that former good Devs become the enemies for the Mazdaists. Zoroastrianism included them into the list of evil spirits. In Zoroastrianism there is an entire book aimed against the supporters of the Divs that is called "Vendidad" or "Vi Divs Data". The prophet of Zoroastrianism Zardust also came from these Divs, but due to the refusal to his new religy among his compatriots, among the part of Talyshians, he moved to the relative land Bakhtria, where the king Keshtasib accepted his new religy. The most ancient God of Aryan nations was the Deyayus (Diaus) who was replaced by Varuna (The Greek - Uranos) in the form of Mitra - Varun. And as to our mind the parts "to/ta" of the ethno name Talysh goes to the theological name Diaus, Teus (Zeus) and to the name of the God of Iranians Mitra and finally coming out from all this name is also linked to the holly understanding of Zoroastrianism "The center of the world Taira". Because the Talyshians dealt with blacksmithing they converted the iron into different labor tools, work with iron, hard physical work made them muscled (Healthy, hugh). That is why them seemed to others as big, muscled. While working they carried on their heads special steel helmet and apron thus then become the armors. As to the Talyshian myth the blacksmith Kova raised a rebel against usurper Zokhak and his leather apron (In Talysh lang - "Dushduq") became an insignia of Iran.
It is interesting that precisely the blacksmithing had an effect on the formation of Talysh ethnos as anthropological type. Horse breeding became this second factor in this process for them. Prolonged occupation with blacksmithing made Talyshians broad-shouldered, gave to them Herculean body. As a result they were famous as Pakhlavans (The fighters) (hence Pahlevi and The Parthians). In the Talysh language pahlivon can be understood as broad-shouldered from the word to palu (Persian pahlu - The side).
Without going into the detail of anthropology, let us note that very ethnic name of Talyshians more precise its Arab version Taylasan even in second half of XIX century by Talysh historian Said Ali Kazymi was described as; This was connected with the word of Teylasan means "Owner of the Teylasan" by which was concealed head and the arms.
Georgian author G. Dzhibadze does explain the word of Taylasan as the piece of material like the scarf, by which they shielded head and the face from the solar rays/beams. Kazymi does focus attention on the only number of Arab word of tyayalis/talis, which subsequently in the Talysh language could acquire the form of Talysh. Further, referring to "Madzhmaul Bahrain" he does note that talis is something pure/clean, simple and without the lines and the spots. He perceives the excellence of the qualities in the Talysh people indicated and in this connection is explained one of the versions of the appearance of ethno name Talysh.
It is interesting that Talyshians at present call the towel as Talis and during the work in the field they dress to the head material, like the towel. In the book of Mani -"Shapurakan" the word of Taylasan is explained as the gap/interval between the epochs of solar year. Possibly, this characteristic feature in the antiquity did give occasion for distinguishment of Talyshians from the remaining parts of Arian - Iranian tribes. Ethno name Talysh is much older than its Arab version, known from IX century. It is necessary to properly appreciate the Kazymi in the fact that when he gave the diverse variants for explanation of the ethno name Talysh/tolish including origin of this word from the Talysh word of Tulish (on Talysh language "tul" - is loam/clay), he considered this similar explanation unacceptable for place name studiers. On the contrary, the origin of Arab word; "at" satisfied him Taylasan from the Talysh word of Talyshan, in what to our opinion he was right. For the confirmation of his position the author cites "Gamus"; Arabs, being scolded, they say: You! Son of the Taylasan are you a human (adzham)?
It is understandable that the Arabs perceived in this concept the name of the specific people, that to them was more known than remaining Iranians (adzhams).
M. Talyshli, concerning this theme, recognizes more ancient the concept of Talysh/Tolish, than its Arab version.
It is interesting that the Arab version of taylasan does have a similarity/resemblance in antroponame - with the name of the chapter of Andii - Telusina, met in the Assyrian sources of the times of Sargona the second.
The country of Andia is considered as one of the regions of the Caspian Sea where the Arians, Medes lived. Let us by the way note that M. Mirzayev does consider that Telusina is not personal name, and he assumes that Telusina is the first written version of the ethno name Tolysh (Talysh), whose origin he does connect with the Talyshi word of "tulosh" - "made of clay".
Let us note that both the ancient Assyrians and the Arabs even in the antiquity knew the Talyshians. In Arabia from immemorial time is known tribe by the name "tay", which can be understood as the Arab version of the ethno name of Medes - Amadai, Matai, which preserved its equivalent in the ethno name of Talysh.
Roman geographer Ippolit even in B.C. together with the Arabs in Arabia notes the names of the tribes of Tayyits, Madyanits and Syrians, and later in the literature in the Syrian language frequently mentioned the nomad tribe of Tayyits (tayyaye). It is interesting that the Syrian author of VI century, speaking the pre Islamic states of Lakhmits and Gassanids in Arabia, does indicate that for them were characteristic the names of "Persian tayyits" and "Rommey Tayyits". From that stated above it becomes clear that by the name of tribe "Tay" they were perceived as Persians, and in this connection they can be identified as the ancestors of the Talyshi people.
In the sources Tay, Tayots, Dak, Tayk are encountered as the names of the regions in Georgia, in the south of Iberia from IX century. Talyshians and Medes from the immemorial times moved both to the West - to Arabia and to the east. In this connection is of interest the Indo-European people of Takhors - Tha Shia, about which report Chinese sources. Soviet author F. Rosenberg in his review of German scientist Gustav Khalon's book writes that: "...even in XII century B.C. people Ta Shia - Takhors (old name, according to Francke "ta - sha") was known to Chinese, and legends about it raises to the period more than of 1000 years until that time. The country of Ta - Shia for the Chinese was not only geographical concept, but by the real value, with which, as Francke writes, they have been connected by political, economic and cultural relations". The country of Ta - hia was identified as the Baktria by some Chinese sources. In the Chinese sources was discussed existence "of the country of Ta - Hia/Baktria on the other side of fluid sands" (source III B.C.), where lived "mythically outlying people and therefore it was called as Ta - Hia. Along this term, the dwelt in Baktria called as Tokharoi, Toshari, Tusara, Tokhri, Ta - Hia which raises to D'ay-ya, T'ay-ya// D'ad - ga, T'ad - qa. Taking into account similarity/resemblance in the name Ta - Hia in the east and Tays in the West, it is possible to perceive in this Indo-European mythical people precisely Talyshians; people Of Tays/Days, and also the country of Talays (Dalays).
In the Chinese sources is mentioned the country of Tukhalo - Tokharistan, which corresponds to Tajikistan. Concepts those connected with the Tajiks were familiar in the countries of the Far East as tagzig (tajik), by the name of which were examined all regions adjoining to the Western Tibet. It is interesting that in this region was placed the legendary country of Olmo - the native land of the founder of the Tibetians Bonsk religy of Shenraba. Olmo is considered as Iran and, as to the opinion of specialists, the religion of the Tibetians of Bon can be considered as "traditional mazdeizm". In the Tibetian ancient map together with such interesting for our theme topo names Tapuristan (on the name of the tribe of Tapur), Mazanderan, Sakia, also designated the country of fierce copper tribe region of Oma-Byam-Skya, situated between Tapurs and Persia, where was located the country of Media - the state of Medes - Talyshians. It is interesting that this country also in the Tibetan pronunciation sounds like Med/Meda. In the Tibetian biography of Shenraba (Zermiga) this country is described in details, its capital of Dang-ba (Ekbatan) and d its inhabitants described as the sorcerers and magicians, bearing in mind magicians. The primary occupation of the population of Media, as these sources correctly report was cattle breeding and horse breeding. It is evident from the Tibetian source that its author was well familiar with Iran and the history of Media. And, therefore, it is possible to assume that on the origin he very probably was a Median/Talyshian.
Median magicians due to different events left the native land and they migrated into the distant countries: one of the reasons for this was the mission of the propagation of the religion of magizma and zoroastrianism. In the region of China was known the people of Eftalits, whose name is consonant ethno name of Talysh.
In connection with the concept of Tokhar/Tajik let us note that even in the middle ages Iranian authors used this word for the designation of the Iranian tribes of Western Iran, after which it was then fastened into the name of Tat. some researchers considered Ethno name Tajik close in the value to the ethno name of Tat as the insulting expression of nomads to the farmers... In XIX century German scientist charachterised this attitude of nomads toward the settled farmers as "the relation of the conceited, ill-bred nobility, to the industrial, but powerless and deeply fallen people, that after being removed into the unapproachable mountain strongholds, preserved there, to a certain degree, its independence". Under the word Tazik the Persians bore in mind the Arabs of Tazi, connecting this word with the Arab tribe Tays, who in our view, on the origin were the Medes. Tajiks as a nation were encountered in Western China, in Tataristan, in Uzbekistan, and, certainly - in Tajikistan itself, and also throughout entire Iranian plateau - from Indian Ocean to the Tavria. It is certain, ethno name Tajik completely not insulting name, on the contrary it is honorable name of tribes, known in the ancient sources.
Many stock names from the antique sources resemble the Tajik ethno name: Herodotus' Dadiks, taopai, Dianisis' taskis. Chinese for the designation of Persian monarchy and Persians, together with the use of word 'pose', preserved the more ancient designation of Tiaodji "word which was not considered dishonourable with Sasanids". Well known Russian historian Khanykov explains word Tajik by the Persian word of Taj (crown). This word acquired various forms: in Syria Togo, in Arabs - Tidjan; in the Armenian sources the word of Tajik did assume the form of Tagkh, and the word of Tajvar (crown holder) became Tagovur. So coming out from above Khanykov concludes that: "Tajik is very ancient Iranian word. It again in Iran returns to the custom after XVII century, approximately at that time Arab conquest already lost its bygone value". Historian said: "This word was disgusting to Arabs, since it meant "tiarnik" the bearing external sign of the profession of the religion of zoroastra - zorastrianizm".
He correctly notes: "... to my mind it seems undoubted that the word of "tajik", that indicated from the deep antiquity and untill the occupation of Persia by Arabs, the adherents of the study of zoroastra, this word left the use as a result of new religy and it again appeared in the written language already after Mongolians, by the flows of the blood, diluted a somewhat semitic fanaticism, inculcated by Arabs to Iranians, in such epoch, when islamizm already sufficiently became stronger in order not to fear old recollections it appeared actually in the sense of the ethnographical term of Persian Speaking nations". Now there are no Tajik who is not a Muslim; but it is noticeable that among them more than among other Iranians was preserved more than the popular beliefs, which bear the primitive respect for fire/light, which had to perceive the first people, which understood the possibility to apply this natural force to the necessities of man, so that now sharply distinguishing human kind, from entire world of animals"...
Actually all initial elements of the culture of Iranian peoples, especially of Talyshians are connected with the fire/light and fire-worship, including carrying of Tiara and of taj (ta - jo); in the contemporary Talysh language the word of Taj is understood as 'the place of God" - To (or Ta) jo. For explaining the sense of the words of "Taj" and "Tajik" is of interest the Talyshian word of "djigga" (emblem on the crown). Arab term of "taylasan" was also connected with the sign/criterion of dedication into fire-worship indicated word Tiara had to mention about the fire/light and about the god of fire/light (word tiara to-ro in Talysh language means "road of the God"). Talyshians on the present time use the word of Tari and Khido for the designation of God. Word of "Tar//Ta", "To" were the name of the spirit of the god of fire/light; which is also mentioned in "Avesta".
This deity is known in Avesta as Tarvi, with the name of which were connected place names such as Tarmakis and Tardi in the country of Dalays (Talays), mentioned in the Assyrian sources in 714 BC. The place name Tarush is identical with the name of the mountains of Tor (contemporary Surkhab what indicates in Persian language - red water).
In the Assyrian sources encounters the name of a mountain - Tala. The antique authors note about the existence in Caspian Sea of the island of Talga, that was considered to be sacred, forbidden and place dedicated to the God. Ptolomey (II century) placed this island on the southwest of Caspian Sea, and the medieval Arab authors considered that the island was located opposite to Tabaristan - however than water took over the island (this island was called Abesekun). Strabon reports that in the Hilkan sea (Lankarani side of Caspian Sea) there are islands, rich in gold, abandoned by people.
It is possible to assume that these islands were the remainders of Talga island, which was considered saint and forbidden, since there was gold "the sign/criterion of the god of fire-worshippers" (in Talysh language gold is translated as Tely, in Persian it is Tala). This island, possibly was the last remainder of Atlantis. On the mythology, ethno name of Telamon is considered as the second name of the tribe of Atlants. Ethno name of Telamon has correspondence with the Assyrian name of Tel'mun island, where the Shumerians are from.
On the basis of the aforesaid, it is possible to allow the formation of Taluys, Talays; the ancestors of the ethnos of Tolysh/Talysh even in Atlantis, on the island of Talga (In Arab language tala indicates to "decoration", to "cover"). Talyshians, the fire worshippers as the sign of god bore the head-gear of red color (sign of gold) and, possibly, the appearance of ethno names of Talysh and Tajik is connected with this sign. However, ethno name of Tat is its distorted version, given by the surrounding non friend tribes. With this tradition it is possible to connect the appearance of the sect of Mukhammira (from the Arabian - Red) and motion Kizilbashs/Red heads among Talyshians in the middle ages. Orientalist Herzfeld also connected the origin of the thno name Talysh with the name of Telrud river, whose sense can be understood in Talysh language as the "golden river". In this region of Iran there is a river of Gyzyl uzan (place where the gold floats) Persian name of this river is Sefidrud it is probably connected with the concept of gold, since the white light can be the sign of gold color.
It is known that as the symbolic color of people motions in the territory of Talyshians was considered to be red and this tradition raises to the earliest times. It is interesting that the word of Taliyesin as the name of magicians (shamans) in the language of the one of the most mysterious people of Europe - Celts does designate the "Shining brow" and on their views, Taliyesin possess "internal star". And for Kyzylbashs/Red heads (establishers of Safavids empire - XV century) among which important place belonged to Talyshians, as the sectarian sign considered red start on the forehead and they assumed that it was seen to them and invisible for the strangers. The word of Kyzylbash is translation into the Turkish language of the term of "Tadj of Heydar" (Crown of Heydar), since Sheikh Heydar was the founder of this motion. Concept of the "shining star" as internationally acknowledged is the sign of "the salient mind or soul, the sign which raises the possessor above the surrounding people"; now and then this sign was represented in the form of month. Talyshi women in the past on the forehead sketched signs like the month, possibly, also in connection with this tradition. But in our view, the idea about the shining star in the the ancient Talyshians could arise in connection with their beliefs about the origin of people from the cow or the bull (so buffalo), on forehead of which usually there is "white spot" and people called this as "Tyapal". In the period of matriarchy one of the objects of the worship of men was the light of the sun (goldenly white, red color) connected also with the deity Mitra. The name of God in Talysh language is Khido and Tari - they all subsequently did enter into the concepts of ethno name of their followers - the Talyshians. In this connection it is of interest the opinion of orientalist H. Newberg; who considers Tari as an Iranian God, whose name does indicate "tribe of zer" (zer - "Gold"). Generally, many stock-breeding names in the final analysis indicate "human"; in the language of the Daghestanians lag//lak indicates "human", as this is observed in the composition of the etno name Talysh - self call Tolish (Lo - "human").
In this respect is of interest the observations of M. Mamedov on the topo names such as Toli and Zhoni (Dzhoni); connected with the ideas of the period of matriarchy... The author does come to the conclusion that in the Talysh language zho (joe) - it can indicate "with idea of the woman, as well as girl". He does not connect these concepts with the origin of the ethno name Tolish//Talysh neither in this work nor another known to us work, in which he concerns the value of the ethno name Talysh. It should be noted that in XIII century in the territory of Talyshia there was a Talysh tribe of Toli, with which disputed another Talysh tribe - Aly. He connects word "zho" (joe) with the the Avestian value of "woman". These topo name relicts (Dzhoni and Toli) can be considered the earliest prototypes of the ethno name of Talyshians. The Azerbaijan historian of the beginning of XX century R. B. Ismayilov, considering Talyshians as the Aryan - Iranian tribe, asserts that some historians carry Talyshians to the tribe of Jugin. He emphasizes that Talyshians are populated in these places even from the prehistoric times. And he is confident in the fact that the "Talysh language is the Zendic talk of the ancient language of Parsians" and this is the language of Avesta. Simultaneously he (referring to M. Khorenatsi) does indicate that the place of Caspians did subsequently occupy the migrants from Derbent - the tribe of "Djoga", which was considered as the descendant of Talysh tribes. On the basis of the resemblance of the concept of Djugin and Djuga to the word Djoli, in which there are repeated words of joe (Dju), it is possible to conclude that the female part of the Caspian tribes of sarmato - skifs did move to the north to Derbent and they did partially settle there - in Derbent, after being mixed with its local members of the same tribe by Caspians - Talyshians.
In these edges of Daghestan the medieval Arab authors noted existence of people - craftsman by the name of zarikaran//zirikhkaran (on Persian - "masters of blacksmith"). In their rites the influence of zoroastrianism was observed. The Arab authors indicated the proximity with them of another people of tabarsaran//taysalan, which resembles the name ancient Iranian Tabaristan and the ethno name of Talysh - taylasan consonant with the Arab version. Historical facts confirm the connection of this territory with the masters of blacksmith of ancient Talyshia. After the decomposition/decay of matriarchy, with the victory of man part, their bright religion of fire-worship in its Zorastrian form did conquer and possibly in this stage for the first time is formed the ethnos the generality of man (people of the god of to//ta) of tolish//Talysh.
Sarmatians were the Median tribes, which is evident from their ethno name (Sar - mat). In the ethnic name of Talysh is revealed the direct coupling with Madays//Medes. In the Babylonian and the Assyrian (836 BC) the versions of Medes and their country was called Madai. The word of madai did have another form of matai and was used also in the sense of "Countries" (in the plural; matape). In the scientific literature is extended the ancient eastern form of madai, Matai; in the opinion of Prashek, these names were initially the names of the country, which covered territory between the mountains of El'vend (Now days Hamadan) and Demavend. The word of Matai//Madai consists of two major portions ma and tai//dai, from which the second part "tai" is revealed in the ethno name of Talysh. Linguist N. Y. Marr, for the explanation of the sense of the name of people and the edge of - Talysh and Galish, together with many necessary (ethnographical, archaelogical, historical) data, attached the special importance to the precisely initial part of the thno name Talysh. He noted that the nemes of Tal - ish cannot be removed from Gal - ishit and from the name of Gilanians. Considering the ethno name Talysh was very popular Caucasian geographical name, extended in the Baku, Yelizavetpol (now days Ganja), and in Erevan provinces, he writes: "Base of the words Tal, resp, sal was a name of the nation that requires special explanation". It is possible that in the term we have a survival of the stock-breeding name Daleys (Dalaa), population of region, known on VIII to the march of Sargon to southeast, approximately in Azerbaijan, on to the strengthened cities of Tarui and Tarmakis. But preliminarily it is necessary to gather existing/available ethnographical data in Talyshian region".
Thus, famous scientist left this question opened for the descendants. N. Y. Marr did focus attention on the fact that the ethno name of Talysh in its present form does for the first time appear in the Armenian version of "The history of Aleksandr". In the *******aries of this Armenian version, speaking about the flight of Darius Gishtasp to the side of the Caspian gates (there meant Derbent), it was noted: "...near the country of Talysh in Gilan region".
It is evident from this ancient *******ary that Talysh was the name of the country, which was more known than Gilan region. In the composition of the words of Maday//Matay (Mada, Madai, Matai, Amadai), the second part - DAI (tai) is almost identical to the initial part of the ethno name Talysh. In the antique sources is encountered the ethno name of dagi both in the southwest of Caspian Region and in Central Asia (in Sogdiane). Constituting ta, tai, dai in the words indicated are consonant to the name of the tribe of Days, Dashes which from the earliest times are encountered in the sources - both in the West and in the east of the Caspian region. In "Avesta" among four known stock-breeding names - sairme/sarmat, arya and tura, the fourth is DAI. Ethno name DAI enters into the composition of topo name of Daylaman (Deylam) in Iran, region populated by Talyshians. First Median tsar Deyok (Dayaukku) possibly also obtained his name in connection with the name of the country and people, which he represented (It is interesting that the nickname of Khatai - Head of Tays - has the same sense). In the composition of the name of Maday (name of the son of Iafasa) and in the name of the country of Media - Maday//Matai also repeated dai//tai. From the foresaid it is possible to conclude that the words of Deyok (Dayaukku), Madai, Matai, Amadai (Media), Deylam, Daylam raise to the united source, namely - to the name of the tribe - DAI. The antique sources indicate that the tribes of DAI bore the nickname of Aparn and dwelt at the entrance into Caspian Sea. Further situated Hirkans. On the assertion of the antique sources: "Big part of Scythians, beginning from Caspian Sea, are called as Dais".
In these edges also lived Kadusis. Kadusis also lived at the foot of mountain Tavr (which was also called as Parakhoafr) in the neighborhood with Medes and Matiens. Kadusis, as a rule, identified with Talyshians since they occupied the same territory, as contemporary Talyshians do. On one version, very word of Talysh (as to Kesravi) is the modified form of the word of Kadus, while on another version (as to Iranian scientific J. Mashkur) contrary; the word of kadus is the Greek form of the ethno name Talysh. The ethno name of Kadus appears in "Shakhname" of great Firdousi in the form of kaduz//katuz it indicates people, who gave preference to divine service during mythical Dzhemshida. The word of kadus consists of two parts KA - DUS, from which the part DUS converges on the form with the stock-breeding name of DAI - Aparns and the second part of the word close to Matai. Some of Dais were called as Ksanifs and Pissurs. On one version, Aparns - first lived near Meotida (Azov sea) and were called Ksands and Pariahs, and then they moved onto adjacent of Hirkans region. Concept of "Aparn" raises to the sacral Median word Farnah, Farn (Avestian Khvaryanash) which in the Talyshian language means "the best" - Fyar. Naming Dais as Aparn was connected with the fact that they were the carriers of "fary" - the glory of the gods or tribe's, from whom were assigned the tsars - possessors of fary. From immemorial time of mythical tsar Dzhamshid (In Talysh - Dzhumshid), Iranian tribes believed in the godly nature of authority and the godly designation/purpose of their kings, they considered them as the descendants of gods. In the inscriptions they called their tsars as "the bothers of the sun and moon", calling them as "people among the gods and gods among the people". Terrestial globe which was depicted on the crown of tsars indicated that the tsar is axis or pole of humanity. On their popular belief, first tsar Dzhamshid himself invented gold and created disk the similarity of the sun, then he ordered to depict terrestial globe in the form of the emblem of reign on it. On the basis of this tradition, Iranian tribes did look at their tsars as for the manifestation of god, that was connected with their ideas about godly fary. Fary was considered as the sign of holy spirit as the counterweight to lie (drudzha). In "yashtakh" (holy writing) is depicted, how the Dzhamshid began to give self up to the deceitful speeches and "holy fary in the appearance of bird flew away from him", this resembles people's fairy tales with the scene of death of Devs when from them flew away their souls in the form of birds. The word Matai consisting of the parts of ma+tai, part ma//me can be explained as "land", value of which is preserved in the Talysh word of "zyamin". Ma//me does have a correspondence in the Talysh word of "mu" in the value of "argil" and "land". Consequently the word of Talysh and Matai can be explained as "Land or the country of Dais (Tays)" and we should note that DAI was the earliest name of Arian peoples. In the Indian sources, speaking about the periods, when Hindus and Iranians yet were not separated from each other, is mentioned their common name as Dainkhu. Word Media even in XIX century was explained as "country", however at that time they made it difficult to find Iranian roots for the etymologization of this word. Very word of "zamin" to "zamu" can be explained as zir - mu "lower place" or "inside of the earth". In the Elami language word "muru" indicated "land". It is possible to conclude that one of proto Talysh ethno names was Divs (Dyvals), Tuvals, used in the value of "human" Tai//Dai, which in the course of time assumed the contemporary form of Tolish//Talysh. In this word the part "ta" is connected with the concept of the name of Taurus mountains, which indicated the word "cow". Cow for the Iranian peoples was holy animal, from which did proceed their kind (Gayomard and Gapatshakh, and with the names of the gods of Deus//Teus and Zeus - "God of thunder", and also by Mitre. In the mountains, where Talyshians live the thunderstorms are frequent: God - Teus is manifested in the form of light in the darkness, and in the daytime in the form of Mitre - Sun); the word Mitre itself does have a correspondence with the word of "mis" - "cooper" (the metal which for the first time used the Talysh blacksmiths and deposits of which were a lot in the mountains indicated). This word became ethnic sign for the the ancient Talyshians among their surrounding tribes, which called them as Medes. In the word of "Talysh" final phoneme "sh", as to the opinion of Academic Marr is considered as remainder from the Iranian word of Vashush, which indicates "pleasant" (to contemporary Talysh language "khosh") or the remainder of the Median words of "akhshar" and "shashyar" in the value of "country". In that case it is possible to describe the ethno name of Talysh as "country (or "pleasant place") of the people (Lo) of Tays (Ta-lo-sh).
It is one of earliest topo names and as an ethnos Talyshians bore this name in all stages of their long history. In the formation of Talysh ethnos into the people and, partially, into the race of the special type of Ario - Iranians subsequently the significant role played Zoroastrianism with its principles of endogamy, which forbade to their followers marriage beyond the limits of its ethnos: the disturbers of this ban (taboo) did banish themselves from the community as the followers of drudzh - false way. It is possible to say, up to now Talyshians preserved this ancient law of their ancestors. One of the remarkable properties of Talyshi ethnos from the earliest times is the carrying of its topo name with itself, where ever a Talyshian goes. Probably by this it is possible to explain the fact of the propagation of the topo name of Tolish//Talysh. Academic Marr does speak about them in the former Kuban district - one settlement (503 inhabitants), three in the Shemakha (1200 inhabitants), one in the Goychay district (86 inhabitans), one in the Jevanshir district and one in the Elizavetpol (nowdays Ganja) district (86 inhabitans), one in the Echmiadzin district of Erivan province (452 inhabitants); here he also relates Tati settlement Talstan in the Goychay district, and the Armenian village of Galesh in the village of Erivan province (former name Aruch). Here we would add the populated area of "Talysh" in Iran on the boundary with Turkey. Russian researcher V. I. Savin focuses attention on the fact that Talysh ethno name is outlined in the names of Taleshkendi, Melektalesh, The Talysh mountains, Taleshan, district, Talyshdulab, Tevalesh, Koleshtaleshan, Taleshmekhellefetuk, Taleshmekhellemarku. In the middle ages in Iran geographers noted many populated areas with the name of Tolish (Tavalesh). In Afghanistan there are many populated areas with the names close to ethno name of Tolish//Talysh: Talikhan, town of Talyshkan, Talakhan river, Talikhan river. Certainly not all Talyshi populated areas had to be called in connection with the ethno name of Talysh, but this tradition indicates the tendency of Talyshians to preserve its ethnos under the complex of historical conditions of the past.
After beginning its historical life from metal working, Talyshians actually placed the foundation of new epoch in the history of humanity known as Caliyuqa. In the mythological ideas of the peoples of the north of Europe the history of humanity, once will be completed in the field, where earlier there was Asgard (Possibly connected with the Talyshian word of Asnagaran - "blacksmith") on the earth (Modi and Magni) of Medes, when "wolf absorbs the sun, and another wolf will steal the moon".
In the mythology of many peoples, in one way or another the end of the world and the new revival of world is connected with the activity of blacksmiths and with blows of their hammer. Consequently, the fate of humanity in many respects is symbolically connected with Medes - Talyshians carriers of the fary of gods, with the revival of their traditions of the religion of magicians.

By. B. SHAKHSOYLU

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